|The iOn with (1) Motor, (2) Traction battery pack, (3) Inverter and (4) On-board charger. Click to enlarge.|
Peugeot says that it will market the iOn based mainly on an “all-inclusive” mobility offer. As an example, in France this offer lasts for five years and costs €499 (US$643) including VAT per month, which includes: the vehicle and its battery; 5-year warranty covering the battery and electric power train; servicing and maintenance for five years or 50,000 km (31,000 miles); specific electric assistance; and Peugeot Connect, Electric Driving (smartphone application) services and access to the Mu by Peugeot mobility program.
Peugeot is targeting the iOn mainly at local government, local authorities and public services and companies active in the transport and energy sectors, leasing companies, car sharing companies and the fleets of large corporations. In the first half of 2010, Peugeot has already signed 15 letters of intent with:
- three public transport companies, including two for an offer in different European countries;
- six leasing companies in three European countries; and
- six energy companies in six European countries.
Peugeot is also a partner in the consortium VTLIB’ (Veolia urban transport), still in the running as a candidate for the Autolib’ project, a future electric car self-service system planned for Paris and nearby suburbs in 2011. To a lesser extent, the company says, private individuals are also target customers.
Powertrain. The iOn is a rear-wheel drive vehicle in which the electric motor and single-ratio reduction gearbox are installed in front of the rear suspension. The motor is supplied with a 330 V three-phase alternating current (AC) from the inverter which is supplied with a 330 V direct current (DC) from the main battery pack.
The inverter regulates the current, frequency and voltage according to the position of the accelerator pedal. The inverter, the motor and the reduction gearing provides a potential speed range from 0 to 130 km/h (81 mph). The single reduction gear provides an overall ratio of 6.066 in both forward and reverse gears. Reverse gear is obtained by reversing the direction of the motor’s operation.
The compact synchronous permanent magnet electric motor delivers maximum power of 47 kW (64 bhp) and has a maximum torque of 180 N&iddot;m (134 lb-ft) from 0 to 2000 rpm.
The lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4 battery pack was developed by Lithium Energy Japan (LEJ, a joint venture between Mitsubishi/GS-Yuasa). The batteries are produced in Kusatsu in Japan. Each battery module has four or eight 3.7 V cells and a capacity of 50 Ah. With a total of 88 cells, connected in series, the battery pack can store 16 kWh of electrical energy with a nominal voltage of 330 V.
The recharging of each cell in the battery pack is controlled continuously by a control system which includes monitoring of each cell and a central battery controller.
The battery can be fully recharged in six hours using a single-phase 220 V household supply via a five meter cable fitted with a standard socket and a special plug for connection to the vehicle.
For quick charging, the 50 kW charging unit directly supplies voltage and direct current to recharge the drive battery. The unit operates on a three-phase 380 V supply (supplied directly from the country’s electrical network). The car’s battery is, therefore, supplied with a single-phase direct current of up to 125 A. A quick recharge fifteen minutes to provide 50% battery capacity and 30 minutes for 80% capacity.
Range per the European standard cycle is 150 km (93 miles).
The inverter, on-board charger, (DC) converter and electric motor are cooled by circulating water supplying a radiator positioned at the front of the vehicle. To optimize the life of the battery, if certain temperature thresholds are reached by elements of the battery pack during quick charging, ambient air or air cooled by the air conditioning is circulated through the pack.
The instrument panel features a battery charge indicator (with sixteen positions) letting the driver know the battery charge level. A power meter encourages economical driving by providing an instantaneous readout of levels of energy consumption or energy recovery during deceleration and braking, by means of a needle which moves across coloured zones:
- the green zone, driving with minimal energy consumption,
- the white zone, “energy hungry” driving,
- the blue “Charge” zone, level of energy recovery;
- the trip computer, as well as the usual information, indicates the available range calculated on the basis of driving conditions recorded over the last 25 kilometers. Parameters taken into account include the type of driving, traffic conditions, the type of journey and use of the heating or air conditioning; and
- gradual range reduction warnings and an emergency strategy.
When the battery charge level falls to two bars, the “gauge” symbol flashes, warning of the need to recharge the battery (17% of energy remaining). When the last bar is reached, it too flashes in addition to the “gauge” symbol. Charging is now essential.
When no bars are displayed any more, the “gauge” symbol stays on and the trip computer indicates no range. The heating and air conditioning are switched off by the vehicle’s onboard systems. The vehicle inertia allows the heater blower to diffuse any remaining hot or cold air. The power of the electric motor is gradually reduced.
When the requested acceleration can no longer be fully supported a “tortoise” symbol appears on the instrument panel and the vehicle’s performance is reduced; the vehicle comes to a complete stop when the minimum battery level is reached.
The electrical air conditioning and heating systems of the passenger compartment are powered from the lithium-ion battery pack.
The heating system operates via the circulation of coolant which is electrically heated. It provides warm air immediately after a cold start or when the vehicle is at a standstill. The power of the heating can be adjusted to obtain just the right level of comfort in order to minimize the consumption of electricity.
An optional “cold pack” is available which includes a heated driver’s seat ensuring good thermal comfort when only the driver is present, and optimizing the energy usage for the heating of the passenger compartment.
Air conditioning is provided by a refrigeration unit with an electric compressor controlled electronically so that only energy required for the current setting is consumed.